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I argue that these platform-native objects serve as prime devices for social media platforms to expand into the web and to create data channels for collecting and formatting external web data to fit the underlying logic of the platform. That is, I show how social media platforms are building data-intensive infrastructures to reweave the web for social media. This argument is organized around five case studies in which I chronologically trace the platformization of the web and its consequences in terms of 1 the transformation of social network sites into social media platforms 2 the restructuring of the blogosphere and the introduction of new linking practices, 3 the changing nature of the hyperlink from a navigational tool into an analytical tool for data capture, 4 the transformation of the currency of the web from link to like and 5 the boundaries of a website and the end of it as a bounded object.
Adopting an approach that combines software studies, platform studies and digital methods, I analyze the underlying platform infrastructure and platform-native objects of the social web to ask what social media has done to the web. As part of this undertaking, I put forward new methods that I frame as digital methods for platform studies which utilize medium-specific features to explore dynamics of platformization.
I trace how social network sites have become social media platforms by outlining three pre-conditions for platformization: the separation of content and presentation with XML, the modularization of content and features with widgets and interfacing with databases through APIs. Taken together, these aspects turn websites into programmable platforms allowing them to extend beyond their boundaries and establish two-way data flows for data exchanges with third parties. This is achieved by reconstructing the historical Dutch blogosphere per year using a collection of archived blogs retrieved from the Internet Archive Wayback Machine between and Within this archived collection, I trace how social media platforms introduced new linking practices through widgets and show how these widgets transform the hyperlink structure of the blogosphere.
To identify the role of social media in this historical Dutch blogosphere, I develop a method to further examine the types of links between blogs and social media platforms. It becomes apparent that with the rise of social media, bloggers are no longer predominantly linking to establish an interlinked network of blogs, a blogosphere, but increasingly connect to social media and, as a result, weave their blogs into the social media ecosystem.
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Here I show how platforms use their infrastructure to render the web-native object of the hyperlink into a platform-specific shortened URL. In doing so, social media platforms change the function of the link from a navigational into an analytical device amenable for data capture. Social buttons play a central role in this, as they create new forms of automated, data-rich shortened URLs that are formatted to fit the purpose of the platform; that is, to feed the underlying algorithms and analytics suites.
Mining QA WebsitesBeyer et al. The study highlights that developers have problemswith the usage of API components, such as user interface and core elements. Errors51are mentioned in questions related to Network, Database, and Fragments. Linares-Vasquez et al. Their findings suggest thatmost of the questions include general topics such as IDE-related and compatibilityissues, while the specific topics, such as crash reports and database connection, arepresented in a reduced set of questions.
In another study, Linares-Vasquez et al. They found that Android developers have more questionswhen the behaviour of APIs is modified e. Wang et al. Bajaj et al. They foundthat web-related discussions are becoming more prevalent in mobile development,and developers face implementation issues with new HTML5 features such as Can-vas. Mining App StoresKhalid  manually analyzed and tagged reviews of iOS apps to identify the dif-ferent issues that users of iOS apps complain about.
They  studied 6, lowstar-rating user-reviews for 20 free iOS apps and uncovered 12 types of complaints. Their findings suggest that functional errors, feature requests and app crashes arethe most frequent complaints while privacy and ethical issues, and hidden app costsare the complaints with the most negative impact on app ratings. Gorla et al. Avdiienko et al. Theyfound that the data for sensitive sources ends up in typical sinks that differ betweenbenign and malicious apps.
Khalid et al. Pagano et al. They found that most of the feedback is provided shortlyafter new releases, and the content has an impact on download numbers.
They  also surveyed 45 Android de-velopers to indicate that apps having high user ratings use APIs that are less fault-and change-prone than the APIs used by low rated apps. As also revealed by ourstudy, McDonnell et al.
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Mining Bug RepositoriesHan et al. They foundthat hardware-based fragmentation affecting the bugs reported in the Android bugrepository as even for shared common topics there was a divergence in topic key-words between vendors. Martie et al. Other studies [83, , , ] have analyzed different web-based or hybrid mobile app development frameworks, while others  have dis-cussed cross-compilation approach. For instance, Palmieri et al. Huy et al. Masi et al. Gokhale et al. Their proposal is a vari-ant of Hybrid development model that utilizes code translators to translate existingweb or desktop applications for the target mobile platforms.
Puder et al. Grounded Theory Studies in Software EngineeringMany researchers have used a grounded theory approach in qualitative softwareengineering studies [44, 45, 70, 77, 78, 89, 90, , , , , , , ,, , , ] in order to understand software development practices andchallenges of industrial practitioners . For instance, Khadka et al. The findings were validated through a survey with re-spondents.
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Greiler et al. The outcome of their interviewswith 25 senior practitioners and a structured survey of professionals providesan overview of the current testing practices, a set of barriers to adopting test prac-tices, and the compensation strategies adopted because of limited testing by theEclipse community.
Based on their findings, they proposed a set of recommen-dations and areas for future research on plug-in based systems testing. Througha grounded theory approach, Sulayman et al. They propose an initial framework of key software process improvement successfactors for small and medium Web companies. Kasurinen et al. They surveyed employees from 31 software devel-opment organizations and qualitatively analyzed 12 companies as individual cases.